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虚假按揭纠纷案件中所涉及的法律关系分析
发布日期: 2020-03-24 浏览次数: 1 字号: [ ]

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(san)yinxingdanbaowuquandexiaolirending

实践中,购房人办理按揭贷款时会以房产作为抵押,抵押权作为一种从属于主债权的权利,如果主合同(借款合同)被认定为无效,抵押权当属无效。在借款合同有效的情形下,抵押权的成立需要满足书面抵押合同及办理抵押登记两个条件。就抵押物来说,因房屋买卖合同无效,房屋的所有权并未转移,抵押物的所有权属于开发商,虚假按揭中实际借款人为开发商,开发商以自己所有的房屋为自己的借款提供担保,在抵押人和抵押权人之间形成的抵押合同应当有效。一般来说,银行都会对抵押权进行登记,此时抵押权合法有效并无争议。但是实践中存在特殊情况,名义借款人以预售商品房进行抵押并办理抵押预登记,此种情况下能否行使抵押权?刊登在《最高院公报》2014年第9期的上海二中院的二审判例,认为“抵押预告登记与抵押权设立登记具有不同的法律性质和法律效力。根据《中华人民共和国物权法》等相关法律法规的规定,预告登记后,未经预告登记的权利人同意,处分该不动产的,不发生物权效力。预告登记后,债权消灭或者自能够进行不动产登记之日起三个月内未申请登记的,预告登记失效。即抵押权预告登记所登记的并非现实的抵押权,而是将来发生抵押权变动的请求权,该请求权具有排他效力。因此银行作为系争房屋的抵押权预告登记的权利人,在未办理房屋权抵押权设立登记之前,其享有的是当抵押登记条件成就时办理抵押登记的请求权,并可排他性的对抗他人针对系争房屋的处分,但并非对系争房屋享有现实抵押权”。故预告登记并未使银行获得现实的抵押权,银行不能对该预售商品房行使抵押权。


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